You certainly have read poorly written essays with two, three or even more ideas all cluttered together in the one paragraph. The same can happen with code. You certainly have seen or written long methods which were doing much more than they should.
The mechanics to solve this code smell is fairly simple. All you need is to break the long method in smaller ones. The reasoning, however, on how to break things apart can be tricky, because you do not want to create meaningless anemic methods.
Kent Beck suggests in Smalltalk Best Practices Patterns to divide your program into methods that perform one identifiable task and keep all of the operations in a method at the same level of abstraction. Joshua Kerievsky, in Refactoring to Patterns, follows the same path suggesting to transform the logic into a small number of intention-revealing steps at the same level of detail.
I like to think on the Unix philosophy. A method should do one thing and do it well. And if we think about SOLID principles, we should apply the Single Responsability Principle (SRP) to methods as well.
Developing maintainable software involves communicative and expressive code, and small methods play an import role to achieve this. They encapsulate the details, making the code easier to read and test.